Tree Identification

This is an example of an American chestnut tree reaching its branches out in the sun over Flint Pond in Lincoln. The long thread-like structures are male catkins, which are not yet showing anthers.

sunbranches

Identifying Your Chestnut Tree – Step 1 of 2

The first step in deciding whether your tree is a possible chestnut is to distinguish it from other trees which can be mistaken for chestnut trees. The chestnut genus “Castanea” is not the same as the horsechestnut family “Aesculus” or the beech genus “Fagus“.

In a second step, you need to learn the differences between the common members of the Castanea family. In Massachusetts, these are the American chestnut (Castanea dentata), the Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima), and the Japanese chestnut (Castanea crenata).

beechleaves1Beech

If your tree lookes like this, then it is probably a beech tree. These trees have toothed leaves, and smooth gray bark. They also have long pointed buds. The leaf is wider and shorter than the American chestnut tree leaves.

 

 

horsechestnutleaves1

Horsechestnut

If your tree has leaves like this, it is probably a horsechestnut tree. The leaves are “palmate”, radiating from the center, and are arranged in a spoke. The tree is often found planted in towns. It originated in Europe, and it is often what people think of when they hear about “chestnut” trees. It is in a separate family called “Aesculus”.

 

Identifying Your Chestnut Tree – Step 2 of 2

Once you have decided that you have a Chestnut, the second step in deciding if your tree is American chestnut is to distinguish whether it is pure American, or if it has some non-American chestnut parentage.

Over the past hundred years or so, European, Chinese, and Japanese chestnut trees as well as hybrids have been planted in the natural range of American chestnut, so remote location is not necessarily a guide to a tree’s parentage.

dullleavesAmerican Chestnut

If your tree has long toothed pendant leaves like this, it may be a member in the chestnut family. The American chestnut has long canoe shaped leaves with a prominent lance-shaped tip, with a coarse, forward hooked teeth at the edge of the leaf. The leaf is dull or “matte” rather than shiny or waxy in texture.

 

 

Chestnut Family (Castanea species) 

 ChinkapinJapaneseChineseEuropeanAmericanHybrids
Picturechinkapinleafsketchjapaneseleafsketchchineseleafsketcheuropeanleafsketchamericanleafsketchhybridleafsketch
Leaf taper to stemstraightcurvedcurvedcurvedstraightBe aware that all chestnuts can cross-pollinate, so that the chestnut you are trying to identify may actually be a mix of two or more different types of chestnuts, known as a hybrid.

We can attempt to identify your chestnut, if you are unable to do so, by means of a leaf and twig sample.

Please press one or two fresh leaves between cardboard with a 4-6 inch twig. Do not use plastic unless it is perforated or the leaves will mold. Crushed and bent leaves will not be in good enough condition to positively analyse.

Mail to:
TACF, P.O. Box 4044,
Bennington, VT 05201
Or in North-East to:
Charlotte Zampini
43 Wayside Road
Westborough, MA 01581
Leaf taper to tipstraightcurvedcurvedcurvedstraight
Teeth1-3 mm, small, sharp, no hooktiny, often only bristles, no hooklarge or small, not pronounced or hookedbig, sharp or rounded, no hook6 mm, big, sharp, and often curved (hooked)
Undersidesun leaves hairymany large dots (glands), sun leaves hairysparse dots, sun leaves hairymany small dots, sun leaves hairy on some specimens but not othersmany small dots, sun leaves not hairy, long sparse hairs only on midrib
Twighair tips, purplepink to light red, large white lenticelshairy tips, tan to pea green, large elliptical yellow lenticelsstout, dark brown, small white lenticelsslender, smooth, hairless, reddish brown, small white lenticels
Bud3 mm, downy dark red, pointed, longer than wide, sticks out from stemglossy brown, as long as it is wide (rounded)hairy, tan, dull brown to black, rounded and flat against stemdark red, fat and globularlong 6 mm, smooth, reddish brown, pointed or longer than it is wide, sticks out from stem
Nut1 nut,

1/2 tip pointed with a round cross section
2-3 nuts,

1-2 in.
2-3 nuts,

3/4-2 in.,

rounded hairy tip, sunburst pattern
2-3 nuts,

1-2 in.
2-3 nuts,

1/2-1 in.,

pointed tip, top 1/3-2/3 downy, sunburst at base
Tastesweetnot sweetsweetstarchysweet
Blight resistanceslightmoderatehighslightnone

Other chestnut identification sites to improve your eyes…

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